CONDICIONES GENERALES DE CONTRATACIÓN

Tras la reciente aprobación de la Ley de Condiciones Generales de la Contratación, nace un nuevo marco normativo. El carácter innovador de esta normativa se encuentra presente en el amplio concepto de consumidor que ahora recoge, y en el que se incluye, tanto al consumidor común como al pequeño y mediano empresario.

Esta ley viene por tanto a llenar un vacío legal, hasta ahora existente en la disciplina de la contratación en masa, que va a suponer un cambio decisivo en el tráfico jurídico mercantil actual.

Con ella se hace realidad una vieja aspiración de un sector económico importante, el del pequeño y mediano empresario, al que venía siendo vedada la protección jurídica de que disfrutaba el consumidor común, frente a la superior posición de las grandes empresas.

El mecanismo que pone en marcha la ley para conseguir su finalidad, se basa tanto en la no incorporación al contrato de determinadas cláusulas, como en la sanción de nulidad de las denominadas por la ley cláusulas abusivas.

Consigue la ley distinguir lo que son las condiciones generales de la contratación de las cláusulas abusivas. Las primeras son aquellas que han sido predispuestas e incorporadas, con ausencia de negociación individual entre ambas partes, a una pluralidad de contratos.

Por el contrario, son cláusulas abusivas las que en contra de las exigencias de la buena fe, causan en detrimento del consumidor un desequilibrio importante en los derechos y obligaciones contractuales. Las cláusulas abusivas pueden tener o no el carácter de condiciones generales, pues pueden aparecer también en contratos celebrados entre particulares, es decir en contratos de adhesión.

En la práctica, ello va a significar el fin de la letra pequeña de los contratos, pues de acuerdo con la ley de Condiciones Generales de Contratación, para que las mismas sean válidas, deberán estar firmadas por el consumidor, quien a su vez deberá estar informado de ellas.

Asimismo, estas condiciones se han de redactar con transparencia, claridad, concreción y sencillez, siendo nulas y no formarán parte del contrato aquellas que el consumidor no haya conocido antes de la firma, las ilegibles, las ambiguas, las oscuras y las incomprensibles.

Una importante innovación de la nueva regulación, es la creación de un Registro de Condiciones Generales de la Contratación. En él se inscribirán los contratos y las condiciones generales, así como las sentencias que afecten a las mismas.

La nueva ley comienza así su andadura con un interesante e innovador sistema de protección al consumidor, quien además de la acción individual, puede ejercer las denominadas acciones colectivas, beneficiándose de las sentencias sin necesidad de pleitear individualmente y contrato por contrato, pues la sentencia afectara a todos los contratos iguales celebrados con el mismo profesional o empresario.

Con la ley se ha pretendido devolver una igualdad de armas a las partes contratantes, armonizando intereses en el ámbito de la contratación estandarizada, para conseguir así el equilibrio justo, fin último de esta ley.

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