El cerramiento de terrazas en fachada

En cualquier ciudad se puede comprobar a simple vista la existencia de cerramientos de terrazas en las fachadas de los edificios. Las dimensiones de las viviendas se quedan pequeñas, y esta es una opción para ganar superficie en el interior de la misma.

Esta actuación tan simple, puede tener graves consecuencias, tanto para el propietario como, en última instancia, para la comunidad. Trataremos brevemente de exponer cuál puede ser el problema.

Cuando se proyecta un edificio, uno de los primeros datos que debemos tener en cuenta es la superficie edificable que tiene. El planeamiento urbanístico nos define una serie de parámetros que debe cumplir, dependiendo de la zona en la que éste se encuentre.

Nos establecerá la alineación oficial del mismo, el número de plantas, los retranqueos a los colindantes, el fondo de la construcción, etc. Entre todos ellos, se encuentra la superficie edificable máxima que puede tener el edificio.

Plan General de Ordenación Urbana

En el art. 6.5.3 del Plan General de Ordenación Urbana de Madrid se establece la definición de superficie edificada por planta. En el art. 6.5.4 se define como superficie edificada total la suma de las superficies edificadas por planta. Por último, en el art. 6.5.6 se establece la definición de superficie edificable o edificabilidad, como el límite máximo de superficie edificable de un solar, la cual depende de la conjunción de las determinaciones de posición, forma y volumen del edificio sobre la parcela; el coeficiente de edificabilidad; y una cantidad concreta establecida.

Debemos tener en cuenta que el cerramiento de una terraza amplía la superficie total edificada del bloque. Si dicha ampliación es admisible porque la superficie permitida es mayor que la superficie construida real, ésta podría legalizarse solicitando los permisos administrativos correspondientes. En el caso de que la superficie edificada real, con la suma de la superficie cerrada en terrazas, sea superior a la superficie construida permitida, esto generaría una infracción urbanística.

Si nos centramos en la primera opción y dicha superficie cerrada fuera legalizable, esto conllevaría la preceptiva licencia de obras. Para ello, el Ayuntamiento de Madrid requerirá un proyecto de modificación del conjunto de la fachada, donde se establezcan los parámetros que han de cumplir los cerramientos de terraza que en un futuro se vayan a realizar. Dicho proyecto no implica que se deban instalar todos los cerramientos simultáneamente, pero sí establecerá la forma que deberán tener cuando sean instalados, con objeto de que al final la fachada del inmueble tenga un aspecto homogéneo.

Si dicha superficie es legalizable, y los propietarios van cerrando sus terrazas, esto implicará un aumento de superficie de los pisos que lo ejecuten, generando posibles modificaciones en los coeficientes de participación de la comunidad de propietarios.

En relación con la segunda opción, si la superficie ampliada no es legalizable, se está cometiendo una infracción urbanística, de la cual es responsable el propietario de la vivienda que la ha ejecutado. En primera instancia, el Ayuntamiento le solicitará la legalización de la misma, y si esto no es posible, puede llegar a redactar una orden de ejecución para la demolición de lo ilegalmente construido, debiendo volver a dejar la terraza en su estado original.

Este último requerimiento puede ir acompañado de sanciones y multas.

Legalización de una parte del cerramiento

En algunos casos, cuando en un edificio hay una gran cantidad de cerramientos instalados, de diversos tipos y formas, cerrando superficies diversas en cada caso, se produce una denuncia o una inspección municipal, y se comprueba que lo construido es superior a la superficie construida máxima que debe tener el edificio, el problema toma un cáliz importante.

El Ayuntamiento solicita la legalización de dichas superficies, lo cual no es posible en su totalidad, dado que se sobrepasa la superficie máxima.

Pero puede permitir la legalización de la superficie pendiente de construir hasta el máximo permitido. Esto genera que pueda legalizarse solamente parte de lo cerrado. En este caso, el problema se traslada a la comunidad de propietarios que debe repartir la diferencia entre la superficie edificada del edificio inicial y la superficie edificada permitida por el Ayuntamiento, y dicho resto es inferior a la superficie de cerramientos de terrazas ejecutados.

Para aclarar estos conceptos, imaginemos un edificio que originalmente tiene una superficie de 1.250 metros cuadrados de superficie edificada. La superficie construida que permite la parcela es de 1.275 metros cuadrados. La superficie cerrada de terrazas en el inmueble es de 125 metros cuadrados. El Ayuntamiento permite la legalización de la diferencia entre lo originalmente construido y lo permitido, o sea, 25 metros cuadrados.

¿Qué sucede con los 100 metros cuadrados construidos de más? Es aquí donde aparece el problema, en el reparto de dichos metros entre los distintos propietarios de la finca.

Por todo ello, debemos ser conscientes, cuando tenemos terrazas cerradas en un inmueble, de las situaciones que se pueden generar y de los problemas que esto nos puede plantear en un futuro.


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