La discutida preferencia del crédito de la comunidad por cuotas impagadas

Si la comunidad pretende embargar el piso o local del propietario moroso la existencia de hipotecas u otros embargos o cargas anotados puede suponer un obstáculo infranqueable para el cobro de la deuda, y ello pese al carácter preferente que sobre éstas tienen las cuotas correspondientes a la anualidad vencida y las tres últimas anteriores a la fecha de transmisión, tal y como se desprende de lo dispuesto en el art. 9.1.e) LPH.

Una ya consolidada doctrina de la Dirección General de los Registros y del Notariado (DGRN) se ha encargado de introducir una serie de obstáculos prácticamente infranqueables.

En efecto, como dice la DGRN de 15 de enero de 1997, al pretenderse con la demanda no sólo la declaración judicial sobre la existencia, cuantía y exigibilidad de la deuda sino además la declaración de que dicho crédito goza de la afección real del art. 9.1.e LPH), es obvio que en este aspecto la relación jurídica procesal se está entablando con los titulares de esas cargas ya registradas al tiempo de la anotación de demanda, que se verán postergadas si efectivamente recae la declaración pedida y, en consecuencia, también contra ellos deberá dirigirse la demanda.

Esta doctrina registral ha tenido su continuidad en otras resoluciones, como las RRDGRN de 29 de diciembre de 1999, 7 de enero de 2000, 3 de abril de 2001, 10 de agosto de 2006 y 22 de enero de 2013, todas ellas amparándose en el derecho fundamental de tutela judicial efectiva del art. 24 CE, así como que los efectos de cosa juzgada impiden oponer a un tercero la declaración de preferencia de una carga real, por más que esté establecida por la Ley, sin que el mismo haya tenido la posibilidad de excepcionarla, sea por razón del plazo a que corresponde la deuda, el origen de las partidas o los conceptos que la han integrado entre otras razones.

Incompatibilidad de acudir al proceso monitorio

Si la intención del legislador era la de establecer una preferencia para el cobro de las cuotas de comunidad de propietarios no satisfechas por los morosos, la doctrina registral ahora analizada que corrige y matiza los requisitos que deben darse en tales casos introduce en la práctica una barrera que deja vacío de contenido el art. 9.1.e) LPH en orden a hacer valer tal privilegio frente a hipotecas y otros embargos inscritos con anterioridad.

Tal doctrina obliga a que la preferencia tenga que hacerse valer en un proceso declarativo plenario, llamando a los terceros cuyos derechos se verían afectados no sólo para darles a conocer la existencia del proceso sino para poder combatir tal derecho que, por otra parte, tiene origen legal. Ello excluye la posibilidad de acudir al procedimiento monitorio.

Existe pues una clara incompatibilidad entre el procedimiento monitorio y la preferencia del crédito que recoge el art. 9.1.e) LPH. La comunidad de propietarios que opte por el monitorio podrá obtener, a falta de otros bienes, el embargo del inmueble, pero no podrá hacer valer la preferencia frente al resto de acreedores que tengan anotados su crédito o derecho real sobre el bien de que se trate.

Por otra parte, si se pretende hacer valer ese derecho preferente sobre un hipotético embargo del bien, sin saber si finalmente será o no necesario, debe desde el primer momento iniciar un proceso declarativo al que ha de traer a todos los titulares de derechos anteriores inscritos, en un proceso costoso y desproporcionado para el cobro de una deuda de comunidad para la cual el legislador de 1999, aún antes de la vigente LEC, había pensado en el proceso monitorio.

En vía ejecutiva ordinaria lo que se solicitará es ya el embargo ejecutivo directamente, no el embargo como medida cautelar, bien como consecuencia de la sentencia de condena dictada en el previo proceso declarativo, bien como consecuencia del Decreto del Secretario judicial dando por finalizado el proceso monitorio que se convierte en título ejecutivo. El problema estribará en que en el posterior proceso ejecutivo ya no resultará posible hacer valer la preferencia que reconoce el art. 9.1.e) LPH frente al resto de titulares de cargas inscritas, al no resultar ya posible traer al proceso a los titulares de estas últimas, y al haber finalizado el procedimiento declarativo, agotándose la posibilidad de que este tercero pueda discutir contradictoriamente la preferencia que ahora se pretende hacer valer. El hecho de que ya haya cosa juzgada en cuanto a la deuda obligaría a iniciar un proceso dirigido exclusivamente a declarar la preferencia del crédito y la preferencia a efectos registrales a la vista de la doctrina registral actualmente existente.

La forma de corregir este problema pasaría por una modificación legislativa introduciendo en el proceso monitorio, o en el proceso de ejecución derivado del proceso monitorio, un trámite de audiencia a los titulares de derechos que pudieran verse afectados que, en caso de oponerse a tal derecho, permitiese abrir un incidente declarativo en el que el juez definitivamente y tras la práctica de la prueba necesaria declarase el carácter preferente del crédito y ordenase la correspondiente adecuación registral a tal declaración.

Fuente: CAF MADRID

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